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    LTE / LTE-Advanced Fundamentals, What is LTE, LTE Basics, LTE Tutorial, LTE Fundamentals, 4G LTE Fundamentals, Long Term Evolution Basics, What is the function of LTE



    LTE FUNDAMENTALS
    LTE/EPS Mobility Areas
    Mobile Country Code(MCC):
    (i)   MCC Represents the country that a entity belongs to!
    (ii)  It’s a 12 bits.
    o     Ex: 404, 405  India , 310  USA
    Mobile Network Code(MNC):
    (i)    MNC Represents the Network that a entity belongs to!
    (ii)   It’s a 12 or 8 bits depends on MNC number.
    Public Land Mobile Network(PLMN):
    (i)    Represents a operator’s Network in a country!
    (ii)   Either 20 bits or 24 bits.
     PLMN ID = MCC + MNC
    o   EX1: 404 07 : IDEA A.P, 404 13: VODAFONE, A.P
    o   EX2: 272 07 : ELR IRELAND , 310 13 : VERIZON, USA
                     
    GUMMEI :Global Unique MME ID: Unique in the world. see 5G identities
    MCC + MNC + MMEGID + MMEID
    PLMN ID + MMEGID +MMEID
    MMEIGID: It’s a MME group Id, When more than two IDs serve together to a set of common list of TAI. This arrangement is known as MME pool and make a Groups of MME.
    GLOBAL ENB-ID: Unique in the world
            MCC + MNC + MACRO ENB ID
            PLMN ID + MACRO ENB ID
    Cell Identifications: When the UE is in Connected State, Network Knows the UE’s Position at Cell Level!
    (i)Cell Identification(CI):  Unique in a PLMN and 28 Bit Number
                                          
    (ii)ECGI: Evolved Cell Global Identity: Unique in the World.
             ECGI = MCC + MNC + CI
             ECGI = PLMN ID + CI
                                         
    (iii)PCI: Physical Cell ID: Used for Radio Operations
     -(0-503) 504 PCIs are repeated in a PLMN
     -Adjacent Cells must be configured with different PCIs.
    TAI : Tracking Area Identity: Globally Unique
    o   Tracking Area = Several Cells
    o   PLMN Area = One or More Tracking Areas.
    o   Each Area shall have an Unique Tracking Area Code - TAC
                TAI = MCC + MNC + TAC
                PLMN + TAC
    o   Ex: 404 07 56, 404 07 72, 404 13 72, 310 13 72
    o   Whenever UE shifts from one TAI to another TAI, it would perform an Tracking Area Update(TAU)
    o   Network [MME] always maintains the present TAI of a UE whenever the UE is in Registered State!    
    TAI Lists:
    o  Network May Group the Tracking Areas into a TAI List and Requests UE to not report the Tracking Area Updates if its present in one of the TAI from the List!
    o  So UEs need to perform TAU only if it enters into a TAI Which is not part of TAI List!
    o  This feature is also called as Multi-Tracking Area Registration!

    UE IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS
    UE PERMANENT IDs:
    ·      IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identification
         IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN
         [OR] PLMN ID + MSIN
    ·      MS-ISDN(Mobile Subscriber- ISDN):Subscriber Number For ISDN Services[Only for CS Services]
         CC + NDC + SN
    ·      IMEI(International Mobile Equipment Identity):Unique Identity for Mobile Devices
         TAC + FAC + SN + SV
    UE Temporary IDs: To see 5GNR UE identities
    ·         C-RNTI( Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity):Allocated by eNB when UE Connects to it!
    ·         GUTI( Global Unique Temporary Identity):Allocated by MME when UE Successfully attaches to it!
       MCC + MNC + MMEGID + MMEID + M-TMSI
    ·   eNB S1AP UEID, MME S1AP UEID

    ·   MME S11 GTPC TEID, SGW S11 GTPC TEID

    ·   SGW S5/S8 GTPC TEID, PGW S5/S8 GTPC TEID

    ·   SeNB X2AP UE ID, TeNB X2AP UEID: During HO

    UE Temporary IDs Diagram:

    UE STATES
    ·         RRC-IDLE <-> RRC-CONNECTED
    ·         ECM-IDLE<-> ECM-CONNECTED
    ·         EMM-DEREGISTERED <-> EMM-REGISTERED

    Jitendra Kumar

    Author & Editor

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